Wis. Babies Nickel'd to Death

Another Shady and Secret Maneuver – This Time it is Aimed at Babies, Mothers, Families, and Seniors

How does one create a greater enemy of the people than Scott Walker and his administration? Charles Dickens might be hard pressed to imagine such a villainous regime as has been foisted on the backs of the folks of Badgerland. Not a week goes by without a new unethical trick, maneuver, or side long crash into the heart of state statutes, and constitution. The only fear is that the people have grown so accustomed to this unceasing dissonance that the constant sway against the harsh political wind has encouraged a complacent bend of acceptance or even apathy. How may petitions must we sign? How many signatures must we canvass? How much more can we possibly take? It’s gotten to the point where I feel I am retelling the same story over and over and just changing the names – Kathy Nickolaus, Prosser, Van Holen, Kapanke, Fitzgerald 1 & 2 and on and on.

The bottom line of “ENOUGH!”
Yet, with all the long fought actions of recalls, canvases, and perpetual activism there has finally come an injustice, a horror, and heart rending leap of inhumanity to which I must scream – that is when babies are allowed to die. That is the latest sociopathic action of the Walker administration. Like most of their machinations it is being done on the sly, without regard for legislative rules and behind the cloak of controlling spending, supporting job creators, and reigning in on government regulations.

Ted Nickel (pictured left in photo) is the grim reaper in the latest scenario. Nickels was a appointed State Insurance Commissioner by Walker in what appears to be yet another in a long line of pay-to-play appointments. (Yes. I have told this story before) Back in July the Wisconsin Democracy Campaign filed complaints accusing Walker and 10 wealthy contributors of 24 violations of state campaign finance law. Ted Nickel was just one of the contributors named in the complaint who contributed more than the $10,000 state law allows. Walker, Donors Accused Of 24 Violations Of Campaign Finance Law

Before the Walker appointment Ted Nickel was Chairman of WISCONSIN INSURANCE ALLIANCE. The Alliance is a campaign contribution wheel of fortune. The total Given from 2004 to 2011: $121,247 (284 records). You can check the link above for a complete and detailed track of Alliance money trail.

Ted Nickel stealthy scenario

Without issuing any press release or public announcement Nickel did his “dirty”. He quietly filed an official request asking the federal government for a three-year waiver from new standards requiring that health insurance companies spend at least 80 percent of premiums on medical care. The reform went into effect this year, and is part of the legislation that is most despised by the GOP; the national health care law, the Affordable Care Act – Obamacare.

Waiving these requirements is waving good by to a lot of money, and leads to cutting 350,000 people from Badger Care. The waiver will cost Wisconsin consumers millions of dollars in rebates that health insurers would otherwise have to pay back if their profits and overhead exceed the new standards. Note: this money would not come from government or tax payers, but from the insurance companies. Yet, Walker, Nickel, and Public Health Service Director Dennis Smith are all for it.

As usual, the Walker administration’s sympathy is not with Wisconsin workers struggling to afford health insurance, but with a for-profit health insurance industry that is enjoying record profits. Waiver

To add death to insult, this callous request for a waiver comes at a time when the infant mortality rate in places like Milwaukee is at epidemic proportions.

Why have Walker and Nickel done this quietly?

The Federal Government has 90 days to respond or the waiver is granted. The waiver request was submitted quietly because, if no one raises their voice, chances are the time limit will expire, the waiver will take effect by default, Badger Care will cut mothers, families, and seniors from its roles and babies will die.

Would you take second to make your voice known? Will you help solve the epedemic infant mortality rate?

You don’t need to march or occupy any street, building, or park. It takes less than a minute to sign a petition directly to the Obama administration. With 25,000 signatures the issue will be addressed and answered via email. You are not asked to donate or sign up for anything. Your only risk is to surrender you email address to the “We the People” petition site administered by the White House. Your action will send out an alarm about the Walker/Nickel secret waiver. Your action might help a pregnant mother, a sick child, or strapped senior citizen.

Please help. Please Sign and Share.

Click on the Empty Cradle below

You will land on the We the People Petition Page. Sign and share using the face book and Twitter links on the page.


(function(d, s, id) {
var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];
if (d.getElementById(id)) {return;}
js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id;
js.src = “//connect.facebook.net/en_US/all.js#xfbml=1”;
fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs);
}(document, ‘script’, ‘facebook-jssdk’));

Please help Protect Badger Care – NO WAIVER

(If you are already logged into face book) You can use the “SEND” button. Just click and and you can send this post to any of your face book friends or groups you choose to select

TAKE ACTION against Wis. Secretary of Health

Her name was River Ellen.
I am the proud mother of my beautiful daughter, River Ellen Hadduck. She was stillborn at 37 weeks and 5 days on Monday, May 30th, 2011 at 1:40pm, weighing 4lbs 2oz and measuring 18 inches long. She is and forever will be my precious firstborn child. I miss you, River girl.Confessions of a Baby Loss Mom

The Petition

Take action in Wisconsin against Secretary of Health Services, Dennis Smith’s request for a federal waiver

We strongly oppose the attempt of Wisconsin Health Services Director Dennis Smith to increase profits of heath insurance companies.

Smith wants Wisconsin to be exempt from a federal requirement on how much health insurers have to spend on patient care. Officials are seeking a waiver to what’s known as the “medical loss ratio.”

The “medical loss ratio” required under the Affordable Care Act is 80 percent of premiums; Wisconsin officials are asking to keep the state’s ratio at 71 percent this year and gradually increase it to 77 percent over the next three years.

The infant mortality rate in Wisconsin has reached unacceptable levels, and granting the waiver will further threaten mothers, children, and seniors in Wisconsin.

The number of infant deaths is staggering: 501 babies died in Wisconsin in 2008
That is more than three times the number of homicides, more than twice the number of drunken-driving deaths. In Milwaukee, the infant mortality rate for all children, regardless of race, exceeds that of Uruguay, Bosnia or Kuwait.

The factors that drive the leading causes of infant mortality also drive the leading causes of death, illness and disability for all of us.

Click on the Empty Cradle below

You will land on the We the People Petition Page. Sign and share using the face book and Twitter links on the page.


(function(d, s, id) {
var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];
if (d.getElementById(id)) {return;}
js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id;
js.src = “//connect.facebook.net/en_US/all.js#xfbml=1”;
fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs);
}(document, ‘script’, ‘facebook-jssdk’));

Please help Protect Badger Care – NO WAIVER

You can use the “SEND” button. Just click and and you can send this post to any of your face book friends or groups you choose to select


Post Fetal abortion is practiced daily in Wisconsin. It’s time to extend the pro-life vision for the protection of life past the point of conception and into the harsh reality of birth. The GOP, evangelicals, and faith groups will spare no measure to point out the injustice of ending the life of a fetus, but once that fetus becomes a real live and kicking baby, it is thrown out with the bath water.

Pro Life begins at conception – ENDS AT BIRTH

In Milwaukee, babies die every day. During their first year of life they die at a rate greater than all but six of the nation’s 53 largest cities. (Dennis Smith pictured left over empty cradle

In Milwaukee, babies die at rates associated with the Third World.

The number of infant deaths is staggering: 501 babies died in Wisconsin in 2008
That is more than three times the number of homicides, more than twice the number of drunken-driving deaths. In Milwaukee, the infant mortality rate for all children, regardless of race, exceeds that of Uruguay, Bosnia or Kuwait.

The factors that drive the leading causes of infant mortality also drive the leading causes of death, illness and disability for all of us.

The city Health Department on Monday is to release the 2010 Fetal Infant Mortality Review Report, based on an examination of all 499 infant deaths that occurred in Milwaukee from 2005 to 2008. In that time frame, for every 1,000 babies born, 11 died. “We have a public health crisis,” said Bevan K. Baker, Milwaukee’s commissioner of health. “We have moved beyond the tipping point.”
Read “For Milwaukees Children, an Early Grave” JS Online

How are Walker and Health Czar Dennis Smith facing this crisis?

They are seeking a waiver – a waiver to give insurance companies a viagra boost. In medical, political jargon the “waiver” is what’s known as the “medical loss ratio.” Wisconsin’s Commissioner of Insurance sent a letter to the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services requesting a change in a formula which largely determines insurer profits and the amount spent on patients. The request is to guess what? Lower the amount spent on patients, like the mother’s of new born babies.
Robert Kraig, executive director of Citizen Action of Wisconsin says allowing the state to go lower would not benefit consumers, “So insurance companies would be able to take more profit, more overhead and spend less on medical claims at a time when consumers across the state are struggling to afford skyrocketing health insurance premiums.”PREMIUMS, PROFITS AND PATIENT CARE

In case you were wondering what “Occupy Wall Street” and “We are the 99%” is all about – this is it.

The 1% in this example are the health insurance companies. The 99% are the dead and dying babies. The 1% is where the money is. The life expectancy rates for the U.S. were not published by the U.S. media, but by the BBC. Wonder why? The 1% are the insurance companies, Americans for Prosperity, and ALEC. The 99% are the mother’s, seniors, and families expected to accept cuts in Badger Care so the insurance companies can enjoy higher profits.

If the federal government doesn’t grant Wisconsin a waiver from the medical loss ratio, insurers which don’t spend at least 80 percent on patient care would have to give consumers refunds. If the waiver is not granted it will also save 350,000 people from being cut from Badger Care (many of the pregnant mothers).

You can take action

The We the People tool on the WhiteHouse.gov is intended to foster a focused and civil conversation about how the federal government should address a range of issues. Only petitions that reach a certain number of signatures, or “threshold,” within a given amount of time will generate an official response.

The current threshold is 25,000 signatures within 30 days.

We petition the Obama administration to:

Petition title:

Take action in Wisconsin against Secretary of Health Services, Dennis Smith’s request for a federal waiver.

The goal is 25,000 Signatures by November 28, 2011. The issue will be addressed by the administration and a response will be personally delivered to you via email.

Please use the sign and share options on the link below to alert your friends on face book and twitter to unacceptable infant mortality rates in Wisconsin that the requested waiver will serve to ignore.

Read and sign the petition

Bill AB237 "Arrest Anyone!"

Fork in the River NEW method or OLD?

A critical choice regarding methods of law enforcement is now playing out in Wisconsin and across the country. Will we throw out the “new”, in favor of the “old”? We know the outcome of
both methods from a look at the past.

The First Amendment states:

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

The right to protest is a given in the Bill of Rights. Peaceful protests and demonstrations have and will always be a part of democracy. It is through law enforcement where the rubber meets the road, or the club meets the head. Through a long history of protest in this country, we have witnessed different methods of dealing with protest.


The most enlightening and positive lessons that resulted from the Wisconsin Protest last Spring, had little to do with the action itself. Chief Tubbs, as head of the Capitol Police, made a real gamble and demonstrated the new methods of handling one of the most massive demonstrations in the State’s history.

Under great pressure from old-way, conservatives he put his reputation on the line to try something new. The fist thing he did:

1) Set up a line of communication with the protest leaders.

He was out there every day talking and communicating what law enforcement needed to maintain order and safety, while protesters listened, negotiated, and compromised for a solution for both sides.

2) Law Enforcement did not vilify the people and the people did not vilify law enforcement.

Protest leaders where adamant in their instructions not to blame the police or call them names.They pointed out, on hundreds of occasions, they are just doing their jobs.

It worked. The protest of occupation of the Wisconsin Capitol, that spanned months, resulted in few arrests. No one incident of beating, gassing, kettling, took place. Ironically, because the protest lacked the typical confrontational violence of past protests, the success of Chief Tubbs risk was hardly noticed – but we can learn from it. Both sides were lifted to a place above and beyond their call. Chief Tubbs was under intense pressure to employ the “old” way, and we can only thank him for his great contribution to peace and civility.

Conservatives did not like it, and you can believe they were applying pressure on Chief Tubbs methods, then and now. Like GOP Rep. Whitewater (picture foreground left) Steve Nass

Tubs is to blame

Nass said that while the number of protesters at the Capitol has dwindled since the spring, the aggressive nature of the protesters has escalated.

Nass said Tubbs is the person to blame for this increase in aggression because he’s gone out of his way to go easy on protesters occupying the Capitol for weeks earlier this year.

More on “Old Method such an ‘Nass”


The “old method” of handling the people’s exercise of 1st Amendment rights, is as familiar as it is ineffective. We have seen the “old method” decade after decade always with the same result. Death, injury, tear gas, beating and brutality. Before Tubbs, it may have appeared the only way to protect and serve. It begins subtly, often in the dark of night. It is not an action but an attitude, as demonstrated in a recent video captured at the Occupy Wall Street action. It demonstrates the tired, subtle, old attitude of some law enforcement officers when approaching a peaceful demonstration.
“My little night stick is gonna get a work out tonight”

The “Old Method” has failed for decades in hundreds of instances, resulting in the injury and death of hundreds of people.

1) No communication with city officials and protest leaders.

The people and the officials do not communicate. The hollow between an attitude of fear and an attitude of freedom is filled with an unknown, most always played out in aggression, violence, injury and death. Mayors, City Officials communicate to law enforcement that the people have no right to assemble. They are a threat to their political future.

This needless atrocity has been played out in the streets of the world, time after time, always with the same tragic and predictable result as demonstrated most recently on the streets of Oakland, California.
<table with="470" bgcolor="red" cellpadding="10"

Scott Olsen
His name is Scott Olsen. He is a veteran of two tours in Iraq, only to be brought down by the Oakland Police. His family live in Onalaska, Wisconsin. All so unnecessary. A direct victim of the old attitude turned into unleashed violence as is inevitable. We know this from every past instance of handling protest with the “Old methods”.

It all begins so subtly as right here in Wisconsin – Arrest Everyone

It begins with the belief in the old method, that police should be empowered as they see fit to squash the people’s 1st Amendment right. Case in point, the bill moved out of committee in the Wisconsin Assemply:

AB237, which would give arrest powers to law enforcement officials over anyone “violating a law that constitutes a civil forfeiture if the law enforcement officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person is violating or has violated the law.

The bill was introduced to give the Wisconsin State Patrol reassurance that they are empowered to arrest person’s who are exercising their rights provided by Wisconsin statutes to film, and photograph the assembly proceedings from the public gallery. Thus far, the action of the State Patrol demonstated below is not really legal.

Notice the “my little night stick” expressions on the faces of the Wisconsin State Patrol in the short video.

An example of the “old method” occurring daily in the public gallery of the assembly house in Wisconsin. The action is so questionable the State Patrol needs reassurance for its action in the form of Bill AB237.

One of the bill’s cosponsors, Sen. Van Wanggaard (R-Racine), did not respond to requests for comment by initial publication of the article regarding the bill.

He expresses the “old method” of handling protest so well in his own campaign add.

Van Wanggaard – Racine’s Finest from Intrepid on Vimeo.

Authored by Reps. Joel Kleefisch R-Oconomowoc), Chris Danou (D-Trempealeau), Joe Knilans (R-Janesville)

If you agree with the subtle “my little night stick” message of Sen. Van Wanggaard and his fellow law makers, you are in favor of the “old method” of violence in face of the 1st Amendment. You are dooming another generation of citizens their right to petition their government and willing to risk the blood on your hands that will inevitably follow, when they might be veterans, your cousins, your family, your daughter or son.

I am with the “new method”. I am with Chief Tubbs.

Under note from google

Observations on Content Removal Requests

* We received a request from a local law enforcement agency to remove YouTube videos of police brutality, which we did not remove. Separately, we received requests from a different local law enforcement agency for removal of videos allegedly defaming law enforcement officials. We did not comply with those requests, which we have categorized in this Report as defamation requests.

Law Enforcement Request

“Evil and corruption thrive best in the dark” – Robert La Follette

Fitzgerald Concentrate will leave you speechless

The Fitzgerald clan enjoys as much power in Wisconsin, as the front lemming on rodent island

Some businesses and organizations have firm policies that deter close family members from management or high office, for fear of problems that come with limiting the intellectual and emotional gene pool. Not Wisconsin, where three members of the same family, two brothers and dear dad, control the State Senate, the Assembly, and the State Patrol. Sounds more like an third world authoritarian arrangement and seems to have evolved in very much that direction for the people of Wisconsin. The Fitzgerald concentration of power between the leading legislators and the head of the State Patrol appears to be leaving citizens, speechless – literally.

Since the more massive demonstrations of the Spring, the rules and regulations on the public’s behavior while in the State Capitol or attending Senate and Legislative sessions have become more and more stifling and even unconstitutional. Even though the Capitol Police under the guiding hand of Chef Tubbs, have demonstrated a model of success in handling one of the most massive demonstrations in Wisconsin’s history, it is the Steven Fitzgerald’s State Patrol who have taken charge of a new, hard handed, security force.

But, there is a problem.

The State Patrol is making it’s own rules; rules that are an authoritarian dream, or nightmare, that are in direct violation of the Wisconsin State Statutes and the Constitution of both the State and the Country.

The video below is a short story of the evolution of the Fitzgerald State Patrol security force. An unidentified man in a suite finally admits to being a police officer, but will not admit he represents the State Patrol…. Why?

“Evil and corruption thrive best in the dark” Robert La Follette

What began as some close model of a Secret Service for Walker, has evolved into becoming the authoritarian, arresting hand of a dictator. What else can you call it? When clearly quoted state statutes and the constitution are corrupted and ignored? When new self-made rules are imposed and enforced with hand cuffs, imprisonment and fines, we have moved outside the rule of law. This is not Democracy. This is not the United States. This is not Wisconsin.

This is an on going abuse of power that has pervaded the people’s house for days, weeks and months.

First they came for the communists,
and I didn’t speak out because I wasn’t a communist.

Then they came for the trade unionists,
and I didn’t speak out because I wasn’t a trade unionist.

Then they came for the Jews,
and I didn’t speak out because I wasn’t a Jew.

Then they came for me
and there was no one left to speak out for me.

Martin Niemöller (1892–1984)

Mere passive citizenship is not enough. Men must be aggressive for what is right, if government is to be saved from those who are aggressive for what is wrong.
Robert La Follette

GOP Vote Asphyxiation Machine

The Walker administration is not just engaged in vote suppression. Suppression implies an action much more gentle than the the GOP attack on the voters of Wisconsin. What the GOP is imposing on a Wisconsin Citizen’s right to vote could be better tagged as Vote Asphyxiation.

The Wisconsin Voter ID law will cost 6 million dollars

The “Broke” state is prepared to spend millions of dollars on implementing the Voter ID law.
Meanwhile, 350,000 people are to be cut from Badger Care, and the University of Wisconsin is to be cut by over 30%. Does it follow that the Voter ID law was necessary since it commands such a high priority when Health and Higher Education is drastically cut?

Not according to the non-partisan League of Women Voters.

MADISON – A new legal challenge to the Wisconsin Voter ID Law is coming.

The League of Women Voters plans to file a lawsuit against Governor Scott Walker and GOP lawmakers, alleging the law is unconstitutional.

The requirements involved in the Voter ID Law are among the toughest in the nation.

That law goes into effect in 2012, but the League of Women Voters want to put an end to it now.

Former Wisconsin Supreme Court Justice Janine Geske (appointed to the Wisconsin Supreme Court by Governor Tommy Thompson in 1993) this lawsuit does have merit.

“It’s certainly not a frivolous argument, and one of the reasons they are making those arguments is that under the federal Constitution, the U.S. Supreme Court says basically the voter ID requirement is OK, so they have to make their argument under the Wisconsin Constitution,” explained Geske.

Geske believes, however, the suit will not go very far.

Wisconsin is now the 11th state to have approved legislation requiring ID at the polls.

Read Article
<a href="http://freewisconsinblog.com/archives/7877&quot;? Read.00004% Vote Problem Gets 6 Million Fix

Vote Asphyxiation in Wisconsin

Who are the people in the state who are least likely to possess a driver’s license or photo ID that enables them to vote? The poor, people of color, disabled, and seniors. The quote below is from the DMV web site.

101 N. Main St. Municipal Building
Fort Atkinson, WI 53538
Open 2nd and 4th Thursday of the month Limited access for persons with a disability.

The site to get an ID required to vote is open two days per month, and what’s more, has “limited access for persons with a disability” – or people that happen to be of a group least likely to possess a driver’s license? Vote suppression?

Here comes the Asphyxiation. This Summer Walker proposed closing this site completely.(Including the Fort Atkinson site)

Gov. Scott Walker’s administration is working on finalizing a plan to close as many as 10 offices where people can obtain driver’s licenses in order to expand hours elsewhere and come into compliance with new requirements that voters show photo IDs at the polls.

One Democratic lawmaker said Friday it appeared the decisions were based on politics, with the department targeting offices for closure in Democratic areas and expanding hours for those in Republican districts.DMV X

Would Scott Walker really attempt such an obviously partisan maneuver to asphyxiate the Democratic vote? We are talking about a man who collected newspapers out of the garbage to suppress unfavorable stories when he was a student at Marquette. Would he have any cause to seek retribution from the people of Fort Atkinson?

Pictured left is a group that met Scott Walker on his trip to Fort Atkinson…Maybe so?

High Ranking Walker Officials Say…

High Ranking DOT Officials said the changes were based on economics, not politics. Well, then it must be true. After the initial uproar at the announcement of DMV office closing, the officials back peddled a bit.

Transportation Department executive assistant Reggie Newson denied that politics was behind the office closure plan, saying the decisions were being made based on what made the most economic sense.

“This has nothing to do with politics,” he said. “We’re trying to make sure that we can provide service in each county statewide efficiently.”
Department officials briefed lawmakers who represent areas affected by the closures this week. Newson said no final decisions have been made, but they plan to implement the changes starting in January.(Reggie pictured above “reflecting?”

Ok, Reggie, no final decisions have been made, but you plan to implement the changes? Sure, we get it. Thanks.

After being stung with criticism for their original plan to close 16 motor vehicle offices, Gov. Scott Walker’s administration shifted into reverse on and said it will keep all of them open under a reorganization plan. Will the flip flop yet again?

The new plan will add four new DMV offices in Viroqua, Alma, Fall Creek and Keshena and expand the number of hours all offices are open by 620 hours weekly or 32,000 more a year. The additions mean there will be 92 DMV offices across the state.

Department of Transportation Secretary Mark Gottlieb said Thursday that while the new plan is more expensive, he believes the best overall course is to expand services.

Read more

Walker has said he believes the law is constitutional and will survive any legal challenge.

Sixteen Democratic U.S. senators, including Herb Kohl of Wisconsin, asked the U.S. Justice Department last month to look into whether voting rights are being jeopardized in states with similar photo identification requirements.

The lawmakers expressed concern that millions of people without a government-issued ID, like older people, students, low-income voters and minorities, may be blocked from voting.

You can sign a petition to stop suppression and asphyxiation of the Wisconsin vote Democratic Governors Association

Recall looms – GOP Poised to Steal the Election



Kathy Nicholaus remains the Clerk of Waukesha County

Remember Your Outrage? Nothing Has Changed

Santa came in the form of Investigating Attorney Verhoff with the backing of his trusty elf GAB Directory Kevin Kennedy (pictured below ho ho ho)

MADISON, WI – Based upon an extensive independent investigation into the actions of Waukesha County Clerk Kathy Nickolaus after the Spring Election, the Government Accountability Board found probable cause to believe that she violated the state law requiring county clerks to post all returns on Election Night, but concluded that the violation was not willful and therefore did not constitute criminal misconduct.

They confirmed that all of the officials in Waukesha County were good little boys and girls who would never cheat, lie, or do anything naughty with voting software, vote bags, or inspector sheets. HO HO HO
Read more

Thirty-one million dollars.

That’s the amount of money that has been spent on the recall elections in Wisconsin, according to MAPlight.org. In fact, five of the nine recall races exceeded the previous record of $3 million spent on a legislative race in the state.

Do you need to be a conspiracy theorist to understand that when that kind of money is floating around in the legal sphere, that a portion of that largess is falling down into a darker sphere?

Tim Verhoff Lean Your Ear This Way!

Verhoff’s report a is a huge disappointment and a great disservice to the people of Wisconsin. It is a fact that electronic voting machines can be hacked. This is no longer a conspiracy theory or the machinations of malcontent libel loving liberals.

Mr. Verhoff, what if you heard it from a GOP member of the Assembly? Do you dismiss Representative Priedmore as a conspiracy theorist?

Priedmore’s admission that he KNOWS Electronic Voting Machines can be Hacked.

All cued up and ready to go. Just hit play.

The Recall Walker action looms. Thanks to Tim Verhoff, the man behind the curtain, nothing has changed.